located on the southwest coast of India at 9°58'N 76°13'E? /
?9.967, 76.217, spanning an area of 94.88 square kilometres
(36.63 sq mi). The city is situated at the northern end of a
peninsula, about 19 kilometres (12 mi) long and less than one
mile (1.6 km) wide. To the west lies the Arabian Sea, and to
the east are estuaries drained by perennial rivers originating
in the Western Ghats. Much of Kochi lies at sea level, with a
coastline of 48 km.
The current metropolitan limits of Kochi include the mainland
Ernakulam, old Kochi, the suburbs of Edapally, Kalamassery and
Kakkanad to the northeast; Tripunithura to the south east; and
a group of islands closely scattered in the Vembanad Lake.
Most of these islands are very small, varying in extent from
six square kilometre to less than a square kilometre (1,500 to
less than 250 acres).
Soil consists of sediments such as alluvium, teri's, brown
sands etc. Hydromorphic saline soils are also found in the
areas surrounding the backwaters. Predominant rock types
found here are Archaean-basic dykes, Charnockites and
Gneisses. An ecologically sensitive area, the Mangalavanam
Bird Sanctuary is located in the central part of the city. It
has a wide range of mangrove species and is nesting ground for
a vast variety of migratory birds. Certain species of dolphins
are also present in the backwaters.
Kochi's proximity to the equator along with its coastal
location results in little seasonal temperature variation,
with moderate to high levels of humidity. Annual temperatures
range between 20 to 35 °C (68–95 °F) with the record high
being 34 °C (96 °F), and record low 17 °C (63 °F). From June through September, the south-west monsoon brings in
heavy rains as Kochi lies on the windward side of the Western
Ghats. From October to December, Kochi receives light rain
from the northwest monsoon, as it lies on the leeward side.
Average annual rainfall is 274cms (108 in) , with an annual
average of 132 rainy days.