James Nestor: “Deep: Freediving and Renegade Science” | Talks at Google

afternoon, everyone. Thank you all so
much for coming. My name is [? Artur Olivera ?],
I’m in People Operations. And I’m very excited to welcome
today James Nestor to Google to talk about his book
“Deep, Freediving, Renegade Science, and What the Ocean
Tells Us About Ourselves.” James is a journalist and
freediver from San Francisco, and this book really follows
clans of extreme athletes, adventurers, and scientists
who are transforming not only our knowledge of
the planet and its creatures, but also our understanding
of the human body and mind. “Deep” was released
in July of 2014, and it’s received a series
of awards, including an Amazon Best Science Book
of 2014, BBC Book of the Week and a Buzzfeed Best
Nonfiction Book of 2014. So without further ado,
if you could please help me welcome up James, and
he’ll give you a presentation. [APPLAUSE] JAMES NESTOR: Thanks a lot. All right, we’ll
just get started. I think you forgot your phone. You’re gonna need
that some time. So a couple of years ago, I
was sent by “Outside” magazine to cover something called the
World Freediving Championship. Now, this is a very
weird competition where competitors
challenge one another to see how deep they can
dive on a single breath and come back to the
surface conscious. So I had never freedived before,
didn’t know anything about it, didn’t know anyone who
had ever done this. So I was pretty
confused when I went out to Greece– that’s where
the competition was held– and was sitting out on
this boat the first day of the competition. It was about six miles
off the coast of Kalamata. And the visibility in
the water was incredible, something like 200 feet. And I watched this
freediver come out, and he started breathing
really quickly, then he breathed really slowly,
upturned his body, and dove. And he kept diving and
kept diving and kept diving until he completely disappeared. About four minutes later, I saw
his tiny figure rematerialize in the water. He came up to the
surface, took a breath, got out of the way for
the next competitor. He just dove 330 feet on
a single breath of air. So this completely blew my mind. I had no idea how the human
body was capable of diving to such depths for so long. So I remember that night I went
home, back to the hotel room, called my mom. She didn’t know where
in the world I was or what I was doing. I said, there’s these people. They can dive 300 feet, and
they can hold their breath for five minutes at a time. And she completely
didn’t believe me. And she said, be sure to do
your fact-checking before you publish this, because
these guys are obviously cheating in some way. There must be an
air tank down there. But there wasn’t an
air tank down there. I did my fact checking,
and if there had been and these guys had actually
taken a hit of air from it, their lungs would have
exploded as they ascended to the shallower depths. They would have died. Only the human body
in its natural state can survive a fast,
300-foot ascent. So I got back home
to San Francisco, and I thought, wow, if I didn’t
know about the human body’s amazing amphibious abilities
to dive to such depths, what else don’t I know about? What are the other
secrets of the ocean, that human connection
to the ocean? So I spent about two
years researching this from the surface to the
very bottom of the deepest sea. And that’s what the
book “Deep” is about, and I’m going to give you a
little preview of just a few of the sections in it. So we are born of the ocean. Each of us has about 98%
similar chemical composition of blood similar to seawater. The amniotic fluid in which
a fetus develops is about 99% similar to seawater. So perhaps it’s a
coincidence, maybe not. When we come out,
we’re born to freedive. A human infant, when
placed in water, will reflexively open her eyes. She’ll begin breast stroking,
and she’ll stay down there on her own terms
for about 45 seconds at a time, arguably
longer than most adults. We only we lose this ability
when we’re taught how to walk. But gaining it is pretty easy. What I’m going to do now is
to follow down a 300-foot dive by a French diver
named Guillaume Nery. And I’m going to explain
all of these mammalian dive reflexes that trigger in
his body the deeper he goes. His body isn’t really
anything special. We all have these abilities. We’re all born with these
reflexes, and all we have to do is get in the water. They start triggering. Obviously, he’s honed his
to go to great depths, but anyone in reasonable health
can dive down 50, 100, even 150 feet on a single breath of air. So if you guys
get bored, you can try to hold your breath
as long as he is, because this is in real time. It’s about four minutes. So you can start now. So the second he
enters the water, something amazing happens. His heart rates going to
lower about 25% percent of his normal resting rate. And blood is going to start
coursing from his extremities into his core. His mind is going to enter
a very meditative state. Now, the deeper he goes,
the more these reflexes are going to be triggered,
until he eventually reaches almost a comatose
state in the water while he’s still conscious. Right now, he’s
at around 35 feet. Just past this depth, he will
enter into a negative buoyancy zone. So the ocean, instead of
pulling him to the surface, it’s going to start pulling
him down to the sea floor. And he will keep
dropping down until he reaches the very bottom. So you’re going to see he’s
about to kick off right now. He’s about to kick
his legs a little bit. He’s not going to move
his arms too much. He’s just going to effortlessly
fall down into the ocean. So every 33 feet, he goes down. The air within his lungs
is going to shrink in half. So by around 100 feet,
the air in his lungs is going to be about
the size of two fists. You can imagine how little air
is going to be at 300 feet. So his body really kicks
into overdrive now. His lungs will
engorge with blood to stop themselves
from caving in. His organ walls are
also going to allow for the freeflow
of water and plasma to stop them from collapsing. His heart rate will
lower even more. This will allow him to
conserve more oxygen. Heart rates of freedivers
have been recorded as low as 14 beats per minute. One freediver
recorded a heart rate as low seven beats per minute. So according to
our understanding of the human body, this
is totally impossible. A heart rate that low can’t
support consciousness. And yet deep in the ocean, it
does, and no one knows how. So the further he
goes, his spleen is going to release
new oxygenated blood into his bloodstream, which
he’ll use as sort of a turbo drive to go even further
and stay down deeper. He’s about to touch down now
the very bottom of the ocean. Again, this is supposed
to be at around 300 feet. And this is when it gets
really difficult for him. He’s got to make it back up
against that pull of the ocean, back to the surface conscious. But as you will soon see,
Nery is very experienced. He’s going to take his time. He’s going to do a little
air guitar in here for you. He knows to save around 60% of
his oxygen reserve for the trip back up. So as he goes back up, all
of those master switches within his body are
going to begin reversing. His mind is going to wake up. Blood is going to push from his
core back to his extremities. He’s going to start resembling
his human form again. When he’s down this deep, he
can either choose to swim up or to climb cliffs up. It doesn’t matter,
because that’s all of the water
pushing against him. Freedivers don’t
get the bends when they’re diving under
their own natural ability. The human body
naturally knows how to purge all that nitrogen
gas that has accumulated during the deep dive. And he’s going to be purging
that here in a second. He’s going to come up,
pause a little bit. It’s been about three
minutes and 50 seconds. I know some of you are
still holding your breath. There he goes. And he’s back at the
surface, and he’s going to try to do it
even deeper next time. So those are the basics of
the mammalian dive reflex. So, competitive drivers
aren’t the only ones that knew about this
mammalian dive reflex. Cultures around the
world have used it to harvest pearls,
food, sponges, whatever from the sea floor. They’ve been doing it for
literally tens of thousands of years. These are the
Japanese ama divers, who have been diving
for around 3,000 years. When sailors went out
to Japan and saw them, they reported that they
were able to dive down around 150 feet–
that’s pretty good– and stay down there
for 15 minutes at a time, which, of course,
is totally impossible. And all the scientists
who heard these stories in the 16th and 17th centuries
called the sailors’ BS. They said, no,
people can’t do that. You guys were drunk. You got it all wrong. Even up until the
1950s, scientists said the deepest a human could
possibly dive and survive was around 100 feet. Any deeper and our
lungs would collapse. Well, modern freedivers are
now diving down to 800 feet on a single breath of air. And the world record
breath hold is 12 minutes and 10 seconds, so just about
two and a half minutes shy of these fabricated reports. And these guys haven’t been
doing this for this long. Just about 20 years
they’ve been competing. So if they keep
going at this rate, they’re going to dive
deeper and deeper, hold their breath
longer and longer. But the good news here
is that freediving is much more than competition. When I was out
there in Greece, I saw the ace divers
make it down very deep, these incredible dives 300,
350 feet and come up just fine. But a lot of people
didn’t come up just fine. They came up conscious. They came up with bloody noses. One guy was technically dead
for about two minutes before he was resuscitated. It was the most insane thing
I’ve ever seen in my life. And it was also kind
of sad and frustrating that they had honed this
incredible ability to dive deep and were just using
it, most of them, just for bragging
rights, to say, hey, I can dive deeper than you. Hey, I’ll challenge you to see
how long I can hold my breath. But luckily when
I was out there, I met some much more
philosophical freedivers who use freediving as
kind of a meditation, like an underwater yoga. They never got hurt. They never resurfaced
with bloody faces. And they never came
close to dying. They respected their
limits and used this as a way of exploring
the ocean environment and their own
amphibious abilities. And they also started using
it for scientific research. And that’s what I’m going
to talk about next here. Because something
else amazing happens when you freedive in the
ocean without scuba tanks, without a boat,
without a submarine. Instead of animals
swimming away from you, as they do when you
have a scuba tank, if anyone’s scuba dived
here, they turn around and they swim toward you. They envelop you in their
shoals and schools and pods. And they will stay
there for hours. They get really curious. They don’t look at
you as prey, either. Their prey doesn’t go down
and look them in the eye and hang out. They look at you very curiously. And we’ll see in a little
bit, dolphins and whales start sending their
communication whistles and clicks to you because they
think they can contact you. So it was with this
group that I was able to spend about 18 months. They showed me how to freedive
with whales and dolphins. They showed me this
completely other side of this activity, which
was about the furthest thing away from the competitive
side as you can imagine. One of the most
interesting things I thought they were working
on was echo location and click communication with cetaceans,
which are dolphins and whales. Now, let’s start a
little animation here. Eyes aren’t much
good in the ocean. Half the time, it’s completely
black, because it’s nighttime. And past around 1,500 feet,
it’s completely black, because light can’t
get down there. So what whales and
dolphins have done is they’ve developed
different senses. And we also have
these senses, and I’ll show you that in just a minute. A whale can echolocate. What they do is they
send out a click, and they wait for the echo
of that click to return. And they take that data,
and they form a picture of everything around them. It’s basically a form of sonar. And with this echolocation,
they can see better than we can see with our eyes. They can see a human
from a mile deep. And a dolphin can
see a rice grain from around 300 feet away
just with echolocation by clicking and waiting for
the return of that click to come back to them
under their jaws. They don’t receive
it with their ears. They receive it
underneath their jaws, which has the equivalent of
around 10,000 little ears in it. So, this goes on for a while. We don’t need to see that. So, humans aren’t that
good at echolocation, but we’re pretty good. This guy is Brian Bushway. He is completely blind. He lost his optic nerves
when he was 14 years old. But he’s taught
himself to click just like whales and
just like dolphins and use those clicks to
form a picture in his mind. He lives a completely
independent life. He can ride his bike
down busy city streets. He camps alone in the woods. He travels alone to different
countries just by clicking, waiting for the echoes of
those clicks to come back. When some researchers
in Canada took him and some other
human echolocators and put them in an FMRI,
they had them echolocate, and they looked at their brain. They found that the visual
cortex of their brains lit up. So to them, it was
basically no different from what they were seeing
with the frequency of sounds to what you and I see
with the frequencies of light– different frequency,
different sense, same end result. So humans are pretty
good at echolocation, again, not nearly as
good as the sperm whale. The clicks this animal makes
to use in its form of sonar can be heard hundreds
of miles away. Some researchers
believe they can be heard on the other
side of the planet and they can keep in contact
with one another that way. The clicks are so loud that
when you’re diving with them, they can not only
blow out your ears, they can also vibrate
your body to death. So, what do freediving
researchers do? Well, of course
they dive with them. What I’m going to show you is
some footage from Mauritius. This was taken
about two years ago. And these are some freedivers
who are recording these clicks up close. They’re the only people
that really have access to these animals. You can’t do this with
scuba, with a rebreather, or on a boat. So it’s a very
unique opportunity to look at their
behavior and correlate behavior with the clicks. So what’s going to
be happening here is there is this little calf
who was going to be very curious about the cameraman. And I’m just going to kind of
let you watch this and check it out. These clicks, again, are so loud
and so powerful you actually feel them in your body. And your body starts
heating up after a while. It’s like a CT scan. So without further ado– [CLICKING] So all of these clicks, these
aren’t coming from a boat. These are coming
from the whales. And this guy’s going to
get a really good look at this cameraman. [CLICKING] So again, he’s collecting all
of the echoes of those clicks with his lower jaw. And you can watch
him flip around and start clicking more to get
a really good look at this guy. [CLICKING] So these whales stayed
with those freedivers for about four hours
until the freedivers had to get out of the water. They were just too exhausted. So the next question I know
you’re all wondering is, why the hell would
anyone want to do this? Why would you want to
freedive with the largest predator on the
planet, an animal that has eight-inch long
teeth that usually eats 60-foot long squid? You can see this guy could
so easily fit into his mouth and be munched without
the whale ever knowing. Well, again, the only way to
study sperm whales and dolphins up close and really record
their click communication is by freediving. Freediving is completely silent. It’s noninvasive. The animals will welcome
you into their pods. And what they’ve
been finding out– they actually found this
out a couple decades ago, but now they’re finding
out more information about it– is those clicks you
just heard aren’t just used for echolocation. They’re also used
for communication. This is what a sperm whale
click– this is very pixelated. It looked a lot
better on my computer. But this is what it looks
like on a spectrogram, which is a visual readout
of an audio signal. So each of these clicks
are one second long. And inside of these clicks
are millisecond-long clicks. And inside of those clicks
are microsecond-long clicks. You could open this
up, and it just gets more and more detailed
as far as you want to go. Now, sperm whales can
replicate those clicks to the exact microsecond
over and over and over again in perfectly
synchronized patterns. And then they can change
small little bits, millisecond-long
clicks within those, and replicate those patterns
over and over and over again. So this isn’t a random signal. It’s not a dog barking. They’re doing this deliberately. But we still don’t
know exactly why. Many researchers believe that
it’s a form of communication. But the communication isn’t
tonal like a human language, but a digital form of
communication, something similar to a fax machine
transmission, which works the exact
same way by sending very distinct tones,
millisecond-long tones, through a phone line. These are some more
cetacean vocalizations. So I know that sounds
insane to many of you. Sperm whales, of course, don’t
have a sophisticated form of communication. They can’t exchange information
the way you and I can. And it probably should, but just
consider a few things first. These are two sperm
whales head on. This is what it looks like
when they approach you to welcome you into their pods. And I’ve had this
experience, and it really makes you doubt
what you’re doing down there for the
first few minutes until they kind of soften up. But that big bulbous
thing on top, that’s where their brain is. Now, that brain is about
six times the size of yours. Sperm whales have had this
size brain for around 30 to 40 million years. We’ve had our current-size
brain about 200,000 years. So in the scope of brain
evolution, that’s a long time. Sperm whales have a neocortex,
which in humans governs things like reasoning, language. Their neocortex six
times the size of ours. And they also have
spindle cells. These are very highly
developed brain structures that neurologists have
associated with intuition, love, suffering,
and again language, all those things that
make humans human. So they not only
have spindle cells, they have them in a far larger
profusion then you an I do, and they’ve had them for
15 million years longer than we have. So animals don’t grow
a huge brain randomly. A brain takes up
a lot of energy. It takes up about
20% of your oxygen. They’re using this
brain for something. What are they doing when they
orient themselves like this and send clicks to one
another over and over again? They do this around
freedivers, too. At the beginning,
they echolocate you, and then they start sending
these communication clicks as they orient
themselves like this. It’s one of the weirdest things
anyone can ever experience. So those are just
a few of the things these researchers are trying
to figure out right now. They’re working with a group of
mathematicians and physicists in France, trying to bust this
cetacean click communication code. They believe it’s not
a linguistics problem, but a coding problem. And the way to
solve it isn’t going to be by approaching it
through more academic means, but to involve some
coders and some people really into data
transmission who understand that to
try to figure out what these animals are saying. And that’s hopefully
what they’re going to be doing in the
next couple of years. We know they’re talking. We know they’re
talking to one another. We just don’t know what
they’re saying yet. And hopefully we’re
going to figure that out. So in a nutshell, a
very brief nutshell, that’s just part of the research
that I did for the book “Deep” here. And the research is ongoing. These guys that I was
just profiling now got some funding to
do more expeditions. They’ve collected more
behavioral and communication data on sperm whales
in a few years of freediving with them
than anyone in history has done through
institutional means. So whatever they’re
doing is working, and hopefully we’ll be able
to produce some real results in the next few years. So I guess we’ll do
some questions now if anyone happens to have any. I’ll play some of this
in the background, just a little eye candy of what it’s
like to dive with sperm whales. No questions? I answered all of them. Yes. AUDIENCE: How do
you know they’re not as intelligent and sophisticated
in their communications with each other as–? JAMES NESTOR: Oh, I believe
that– my personal subjective opinion, I believe their
communication is way more sophisticated than ours. Our human communication
is very prone to errors. In tonal communication, you
pronounce something slightly wrong, you can’t understand it. Digital form of communication
is very precise. So everything about their
brain size, the complexity and evolution of
their brains, you talk to any neuroscientist
that looks at this brain, they say absolutely this is an
extremely intelligent animal. We just haven’t been
able to study them, because you can’t put
this thing in a lab. You can’t study it in
the wild until now. I mean, now they can
study them up close. And like I said, they’re
getting more information on them now than they ever have before. So it’s really exciting. I think that we’re at a really
neat position right now where technology is cheap. It’s readily available. And we now have access
to these animals to really collect some
great data on them. And I think that’s something
is going to happen, something significant
is going to happen. So, yeah, just
subjectively, I’m absolutely certain they’re intelligent. Once you dive with them, that
becomes apparent pretty soon. Yes, sir. AUDIENCE: So beyond
maternal bonding, which is, I think, pretty
common in cetaceans, is there any evidence
when you dive with them of any other
emotional types of responses? Do you see any what
we would associate with human behaviors like
annoyance or affection or bonding beyond maternal
bonding, that kind of behavior? Do particular wales bond
with particular divers? Are you seeing any evidence
of emotional content? JAMES NESTOR: For sure. Sperm whales share more
cultural similarities to humans than any other
animal on the planet. They grow up with a matriarchal
society with their mothers and their aunts and
their grandmothers. The males, when they become
teenagers, form little gangs and go out and cause
trouble around, then they come back
around the equator every summer to hang out. So as far as diving with them,
I’ve had limited experience. I’ve done it a few times. They have literally 40, 50 solid
days of experience doing this. And what usually
happens is the calf can’t hold its
breath for too long. So the mom goes down and gets
food, checks everyone out, cruises around,
echolocated everyone to make sure we’re not a
threat, goes down and gets food, and leaves the calf
to play with us. So then it comes
back and hangs out. This guy right here,
Fred Buell, one of the world’s
foremost freedivers, actually saw a sperm
whale give birth to a calf, which
is extremely rare. And he this all on video. All of the other
whales in the pod circled it and imprinted
it with its name through echolocation–
so really intense stuff. Again, we don’t know exactly
what those clicks are, but hopefully they’re going
to find out pretty soon. AUDIENCE: I’m
curious as to why you think that freediving is
a better way of getting at this than a rebreather. JAMES NESTOR: Because
I saw this firsthand. Out in Sri Lanka– that’s where
we did some of this research– we had to hop on these
little Panga boats, really sketchy situation. They were almost
drowning us every day. But what happened is you have
to be ready within a second to dive with the whales. You can’t just cruise– you
never put yourself on to them, because they can
just dive and go way. You have to park the
boat, turn off the motor, get in the water, and hang out. And 99.9% of the
time, they swim away. So it’s only when they
choose to come to you that these encounters happen. You can never put
yourself on them. One of the photographers
had a rebreather, and it was quite hilarious,
because every time when it was on, when the
whales would approach, suddenly they’d come up
from the very deep waters, we would get in the water. He’d be sitting there,
messing with his rebreather, trying to get it in. By the time we were done,
he’d get in the water and wouldn’t get anything. Also, rebreathers make noise. They’re much more
quiet than scuba, but there is some
exhale of bubbles. They’re extremely
technical, too. So if you don’t have them just
right, you’re in big trouble. So the guy who had the
rebreather actually just left it at the hotel
room the next few days and learned how to freedive. AUDIENCE: How long
will he stay down? JAMES NESTOR: The freediver? AUDIENCE: Uh-huh. JAMES NESTOR: It really depends. You train to do this so you can
stay down maybe three minutes or so. But all that training
went out the window for me when you’ve got this 60foot
animal the size of a school bus approaching you. And my heart rate was just–
I couldn’t stay very deep. But luckily, they didn’t care. They were fine with me
hanging out at the surface, and I did some small dives
and then got more comfortable, and they got more comfortable. They have to go up for
air, too, and come down. So when they see
you doing it, they get really, really
interested when you’re doing the same
thing that they’re doing. And that’s why, I
think, they allow us to hang around for so long. AUDIENCE: Can you talk a little
bit more about the training to become a freediver
and especially about the early stages, how you
start developing that skill? JAMES NESTOR: Yeah, well,
my entree into this world was through the competition. So the last thing I wanted
to do after that competition was to become a freediver. It just looked absolutely nuts. And I still have some of those
horrible visions in my head. So it was a psychological
issue for me. I knew my body could stand
water for around four minutes, just like everyone else. But psychologically,
I just kept having those visions of those
guys who didn’t make it up to the surface. So just slowly, I
started hanging out with the people that understood
it as more of a meditation, as a yoga practice, and was
able to get those visions out of my mind and get
these in there. And that made it a lot easier. So specifically to
answer your question, there is a number of breath
hold tables you can do. Do very deep breaths
for two minutes, hold for two minutes, deep
breath for two minutes, hold for two and a half
minutes, like interval training. And that’s how a lot
of freedivers do it, and that’s what I do on
really boring flights to try to keep myself
in shape to do this. But you’d be amazed,
like you take about two hours of instruction,
and this stuff just immediately turns on. And something I just
want to mention again, I think it gets dangerous
when you do it competitively. Competitors don’t think so,
but I’ve seen it otherwise. If you accept this as a natural
thing when you need to breathe, go up and breathe. If you don’t feel like
diving deep, don’t dive deep. The ama have been
diving for 3,000 years. There’s no record of them ever
blacking out or ever having a problem, because they
listen to their bodies. So I think that’s the
most important thing. AUDIENCE: I’ve heard a story
of a German businessman who was sailing out in
the ocean, and he said that he had
this dream that he needed to sail to the Azores. And he told everyone,
we’re going to the Azores, and they sailed
toward the Azores, and they came across
a white sperm whale. And then they follow
the white sperm whale all the way to a pod,
like he was asking them to come to his family. And they sailed all the way
to the family of sperm whales. And they spent all day
swimming with them. And he said because
of that, it led him to start a whole
project across the Pacific, building these traditional
sailing [INAUDIBLE], and there’s this whole film
that’s being made on it. And I wonder, have you heard
anyone describe stories like that or interacted
with traditional peoples and their beliefs as
you’ve been out the sperm whales and the freedivers
who have been studying them? JAMES NESTOR: The
only story I’ve heard with the
white sperm whale, I read this book in college. I forget the name of it. But I actually haven’t
heard that story. But I know that
this is something that’s growing right now. And some freedivers
are concerned about it, that a bunch of tourists
are going to go out and try to dive with these whales. But I’m not concerned about it,
because the whales can leave. They choose. So they’ll choose whether or not
they want to dive with people. I think it’s much more
disruptive to them to cruise around with
300 people on a boat and circle them and hope
to get a picture of them. When you cut a motor and
just go out in the water and wait for them to come to
you, it’s a different thing. But I think, again with
GoPro technologies, there’s so many YouTube
videos of people having these encounters
with sperm whales. And I mean, once you have one,
you’re kind of forever screwed. I mean, it’s all you want to do. It’s all you can think about. And it’s a pretty
powerful experience. So I think the more people
that do it, the better. Word gets out. MALE SPEAKER: Well,
James, thank you. Thank you so much. And that was a
lovely presentation. I think we all
certainly learned a lot. JAMES NESTOR:
Right, thanks a lot. MALE SPEAKER: Thank you. JAMES NESTOR: OK. [APPLAUSE]

20 thoughts on “James Nestor: “Deep: Freediving and Renegade Science” | Talks at Google”

  1. It's not very well researched / misinformed / trying to impress with false numbers. Lots of what he says points at the fact that he either doesn't understand the physics or physiology of freediving, hasn't actually done his fact-checking or is deliberately misinforming the audience.
    The guy is a fraud and doesn't deserve the spot on Google.

    I've rarely ever heard such a conglomerate of misinformation, flawed logic and BS.

  2. The freediver video he has shown at the start of his video was actually collaged from many separate dives and does not resemble how a freediver achieves such depths recreationally.
    The diver who did that veio admitted that himself.

    Not a bad presentation.

  3. Very interesting talk. I heard James Nestor on Ocean Currents radio program. I appreciate this information presented to main stream. Mr. Nestor doesn't claim to be an expert. He begins his talk telling the audience that he was hired to write a piece for 'Outside' magazine which put him on an 18 month quest for information and learning to freedive himself. I like the theory that science is based on ignorance. No one is truly an expert in any subject . . . we're always learning, always discovering.

  4. This guy really has no idea what he is talking about!
    It is a shame people are seeing this.

  5. This video and this research is very important – beyond what I can describe in this comment. Can anyone provide more detail on the last question asked about the sailor who followed his dream to find a white sperm whale and started a project based on it? She said there was a movie being made about traditional sailing vessels.

  6. The Japanese are trying to study them..with Kikoman and Wasabe…seriously I am sure they are way way more advance than us emotionally

  7. Oeiantate your body "upright" and click once for yes, oeiantate your body perpendicular to gravity and click twice for no. When they are hunted they will yell NO NO NO NO NO.

  8. Free divers should carry a device that will click the names when they see that whale Edit THEN click while upright for yes and turn perpendicular and click no..

  9. This is what happens when some one that does not know what he is talking about gives a lecture. Outside Magazine should have sent some one else to do the story.

  10. there are lots of inaccuracies and false informations in this guy speech. most animals in the sea stay away from you either if you're scuba diving or free diving. human brain has stayed the same for way more than 2000 years – we're not a different species from ancient greeks or aegyptians. no scientist believes whales can communicate from opposite sides of the planet. the Nery's video isn't real time at all, and all the description of what happens to his body during the dive is wrong. no diver ever got 800 feet deep. Google should avoid giving the stage to such kind of misinformative people who, rather than advocating an activity, end up swaying people off it.

  11. There sure are a lot of people calling bs in the comments but no one being specific about what it is that he is wrong about.

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